The human exploration of the cosmos is the next frontier in scientific research.  Nevertheless, manned space missions are fraut with inherit hazards for the physiology of cosmonauts and astronauts. Because of the loss of gravity, the human physiology, which has evolved over millions of years under terrestrial standard Earth gravity,  has to adapt to a environment of weightlessness.  Space voyagers suffer nausea due to the failure of input to the vestibular system, fluid loss due to the caudal fluid shift, muscle and bone loss and a malfunction of the thermoregulatory system due to fluid shift and the absence of convective heat dissipation.

Projects Thermolab and Circadian Rhythms currently onboard the International Space Station, serve to gain insight into human thermoregulation during long term space flights. To monitor continuous core temperature  a new device was deployed: The so called Double Sensor® measures core body temperature calculating the heat flux at the head or chest. Because of its non invasiveness it is possible for the astronaut to use it for many hours a day.


Double Sensor® by Drägerwerk AG & Co. KGaA